Golf Digest's Ron Whitten wrote about innovative courses and listed all of his favorites. Then he ranted on how there have been nothing in the way of innovations in golf course architecture for 100 years or so. I have this to say as follows ...
Golf Architecture (Golf is a battle game):
Golf is played on a series or collection of holes.
There are core design concepts offering various degrees of strategy (options, choices) at various places in the hole design.
There are three concepts of holes in play - one, two and three shot holes (also "half-shot" concepts for the "picky")
Golf is played with a ball that gravity insures must eventually be on the ground and come to rest.
Access to putting surfaces is by varying degrees of combination of Air and Ground approach
Agronomy, gravity and geometry determine play and putting surfaces.
That's really all there is. Until the math and physics change, that's all there will be.